PostgreSQL Database

PostgreSQL is a relational database that stores data in tables(relations) as a sequence of information (people and documents). There is also relationships between the two (like authorship). The relations store fixed-type attributes in the form of entity properties (like titles) and a primary key. Such entity property attributes can come in two forms:

Atomic (Floats, integer, or Boolean)

And Structured (nested JSON, arrays, procedures)

About PostgreSQL:

PostgreSQL is often abbreviated as pgsql. It is an and open-source relational database with advanced enterprise-class features. It provides support for both relational SQL queries and non-relational JSON queries. PGSQL is characterized by its great stability, and it has been developed for over two decades by a dedicated community. Other database-related aspects of PGSQL are its:




PostgreSQL finds widespread use as the primary data storage medium or as the data warehouse for all kinds of mobile, web, analytics and geospatial apps. The current version of PGSQL is version 15 which is in an advanced beta stage.

PGSQL is well known for its support for advanced data types. The performance optimization of the technology as good as other commercial database technology like SQL Server and Oracle. You can host postgresql online with common cloud technologies like AWS.

Free and open source- You can download PGSQL for free from its official website.

Works across a range of operating systems- You can use the software on Linux, Windows, MacOS and UNIX distros like (BSD, AIX, SGI IRIX, HP-UX, Tru64 and Solaris amongst others.

Compatibility with a range of programming languages- You can use PostgreSQL with several programming languages including JAVA, C/C++, Perl, Python, Tcl, Ruby and Open Database Connectivity (ODBC)

Data Integrity Compatible- PGSQL supports different aspects of data integrity like primary keys, foreign keys, UNIQUE, NOT NULL, Advisory and Explicit Locks and Exclusion Constraints.

Supports a wide range of SQL features- PGSQL is compatible with most SQL features like:

  • It supports multiple Indexing like, Partial, Multicolumn, expressions and B-tree
  • Multi-Version Concurrency Control (MVCC).
  • Complex SQL queries.
  • SQL sub-selects.
  • Supports transactions and Nested Transactions through Savepoints.
  • Streaming Replication
  • Table partitioning

Just-in-time compilation of expressions

PGSQL supports a wide variety of data including:

  • Structured- Date and Time, Array, Universally Unique Identifier (UUID) and Range.
  • Primitives- Integer, String, Numeric and Boolean.
  • Customizations- Composite, Custom Types
  • Geometry- Circle, Polygon, Point, Line.
  • Document- JSON/JSONB, XML and Key-value.

The great extensibility of PostgreSQL results from support for the following:

  • It is compatible with common procedural languages like PL/PGSQL, Perl and Python amongst others.
  • Stored procedures and functions.
  • JSON/SQL path expressions
  • Support for customizable storage interface for tables
  • It is compatible with and supports foreign data wrappers which can connect to additional databases through SQL.


PostgreSQL is well known for its security features which include the following:

  • Robust access control system
  • It provides support for a variety of authentications like GSSAPI (Generic Security Service Application Program Interface), LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), SSPI (Security Support Provider Interface, Certificate and SCRAM-SHA-256 amongst others.
  • PGSQL supports row and column-level security

Great Reliability

  • PGSQL has several disaster recoveries provisions like:
  • PITR (Point in time recovery), Active standbys
  • Support for WAL (Write-ahead Logging)
  • Different replication methods like Asynchronous, Synchronous, and Logical are supported.
  • Tablespaces

When should developers use PostgreSQL?

When you need a reliable database solution

It would be wrong to assume that PostgreSQL is a simple relational database solution. Indeed, it goes beyond to object-relational and provides support for complex structures and many built-in and user-defined data types. PGSQL supports extensive data capacity and the businesses trust the technology for its data integrity. PGSQL has many features that facilitate the work of developers in building applications besides letting administrators build fault-tolerant environments and protect data integrity.

In short PGSQL facilitates the creation of secure and resilient environments with great data integrity.

You need extensibility

PGSQL is noted and acclaimed for the high levels of extensibility it offers. PostgreSQL is complaint with SQL standards significantly which increases its interoperability with a vast range of applications. Another aspect of the database’s extensibility is that hands over the metadata control to users. The catalog-driven operation increases PGSQL’s extensibility. PGSQL stores information about tables and columns and even information about functions, data types, access methods and other information in its catalogs. Users can modify such tables and thus extend the database as PGSQL’s tables-based operation.

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